After the book burning of 212 BC, the Han dynasty (202 BC–220 AD) produced works of arithmetic which presumably expanded on works that are now misplaced. The most important of these is The Nine Chapters on the Mathematical Art, the total title of which appeared by AD 179, however existed partially beneath different titles beforehand. It consists of 246 word issues involving agriculture, business, employment of geometry to figure height spans and dimension ratios for Chinese pagoda towers, engineering, surveying, and includes materials on proper triangles.

Although most Islamic texts on mathematics had been written in Arabic, most of them weren’t written by Arabs, since very similar to the status of Greek within the Hellenistic world, Arabic was used as the written language of non-Arab scholars throughout the Islamic world at the time. In the twelfth century, Bhāskara II lived in southern India and wrote extensively on all then known …

Read More